At this range of f/b ratio, the mortar would be in a three-phase system with solids, liquid and air content. The maximum peak point of the soil compaction curve obtained is called the Maximum dry density value. and 1000cc volume or 150mm dia. Suitable increments of water should be added successively and mixed into the sample, and the above operations (i.e., ii to iv) should be repeated for each increment of water added. The extension should be removed, and the compacted soil should be leveled off carefully to the top of the mold by means of the straightedge. Initially for a water content lesser than O.M.C the soil is rather stiffer in nature that will have lots of void spaces and porosity. The samples should each be mixed thoroughly with different amounts of water and stored in a sealed container as mentioned in Part A. The apparatus is shown in the figure-1 below. It would not be possible to cast blocks in this system. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The mold should be placed on a solid base, such as a concrete floor or plinth, and the moist soil should be compacted into the mold, with the extension attached, in five layers of approximately equal mass, each layer being given 25 blows from the 4.9 kg rammer dropped from a height of 450 mm above the soil. Materials used for these applications are often referred to as controlled low-strength materials (CLSM). The maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of the soil was determined to be 1,850 kg/m' and 12%, respectively. Mixtures were gradually compressed in the mold by three layers to attain the maximum dry unit weight. The soil at the construction site must be stable enough to carry the loads from the structures through footings without undergoing undesirable settlements during the construction process and during the service period. Moisture content is an important soil property that relates with soil behavior, clay content, organic content, calcium carbonate, shear strength, compressibility, and other engineering properties. To get the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, Standard Proctor's compaction test was conducted on fresh geopolymer mortar. Modified Proctor Test is used to determine the compaction of different types of soil and the properties of soil with a change in moisture content;. The fluid media to prepare the mortar was water and various alkaline solutions of different molarities for comparison. The construction site is hence treated and compacted based on the site investigation report. Bulk density Y(gamma) in g/cc of each compacted specimen should be calculated from the equation. Compaction characteristics of soil with and without geobeads. G = specific gravity of solids; = mass density of water; w= water content; The theoretical zero void line can be drawn by plotting the theoretical maximum dry density in the compaction curve if the value of ‘w’ and G is known. If the soil is coarse-grained type, the water is added such that its water content comes to 4%. Modified Proctor 56,250 ft -lbs/ft. Next, the apparatus is prepared by cleaning the mold thoroughly. The void ratio is then computed using Eq. Standard proctor compaction test is to establish a relationship between dry density and moisture content for a soil under controlled conditions. The standard Proctor Compaction test was developed by R.R Proctor in 1933. There appear to be two factors contributing to this optimum moisture content effect on briquette strength. These generally involve compacting soil into a mould at various moisture contents. The compaction energy provided by the standard proctor test is not sufficient, hence a Modified Proctor test or AASHTO Proctor test was developed. moisture content and the dry density obtained in the field followed accepted patterns; overstressing was noted on a uniform sand soil. Laboratory light compaction tests were carried out on expansive soil with and without EPS beads to determine the optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD) in accordance with ASTM D698. 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Next the collar is removed and the top layer of soil is trimmed and levelled to the top layer of mold. At the f/b ratio of 0.250 and above, the mix attains full saturation resulting in a two-phase system with solids and liquid without any air content. Radhakrishna, in Eco-Efficient Masonry Bricks and Blocks, 2015. Soil is compacted in five layers, each layer being given 55 blows of the 4.9 kg rammer. The top of the mold consist of two 2-inch height collar which is removable. determining the optimum moisture content and the corresponding maximum dry density. Usually, this soil will be pulverized soil that passes through 4.75mm sieve. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email. Each test will provide a different set of values of water content and dry density of soil. This also has a detachable base plate as in the case of standard proctor test. During the composting phase, evaporation will naturally occur as a result of the elevated temperatures and aeration. The humidity at the end ideally lies between 30% and 35% (Ministry of the Environment, 1992; EMIS). The remaining soil specimen should be broken up, rubbed through 19 mm IS Sieve, and then mixed with the remaining original sample. First, let’s define these terms: MDD = Maximum Dry Density OMC = Optimum Moisture Content The Maximum Dry Density is the maximum density a soil can reach when it is compacted at the Optimum Moisture Content. Hence briquettes produced at this moisture content are relatively stable in storage and handling and retain their strength indefinitely once equilibrated. Five or more 2.5 kg samples of air-dried soil passing through the 19 mm IS Sieve should be taken. A specially fabricated “static compaction device” was used to prepare cylindrical specimens to test in a laboratory. The sample in the mold is given 25 blows for 5 layers. The soil moisture content and the degree of dry density to which the soil is prepared to be compacted maintain a definite relationship. To get the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, Standard Proctor's compaction test was conducted on fresh geopolymer mortar. Types of Foundation for Buildings and their Uses [PDF], Methods of Rainwater Harvesting [PDF]: Components, Transport, and Storage, Compressive Strength of Concrete -Cube Test [PDF], Procedure, Results, Standard Size of Rooms in Residential Building and their Locations, Calculate Quantities of Materials for Concrete -Cement, Sand, Aggregates, What is Column Kicker? Minor variations were observed for OMC, while the MDD exhibited a marginal decreasing trend with increasing EPS beads content. 943.3 cm^3. For a sandy mud soil, laboratory results were similar to those mentioned above. Fig. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. From the bulk density the dry density can be determined for the water content used (w). 3) In a standard compaction test on a soil the following results were obtained: Moisture content (%) 6.8 8.5 9.4 10.2 11.3 12.5 13.6 Bulk density (kg/m 3) 2070 2139 2187 2212 2228 2211 2193 (a) What is the optimum moisture content and maximum compaction? A sample graph is shown below: The dry density in g/cc corresponding to the maximum point on the moisture content/dry density curve should be reported as the maximum dry density to the nearest 0.01. VIP members get additional benefits. The final layer must project outside the mold and into the collar. The moisture content in aggregate is used to determine the binder content for HMA during production of the mixture in a plant. Standard Proctor 12,400 ft -lbs/ft. The inner surface of the CBR mold was smeared with silicone grease to avoid friction during compaction. The water content of the sample after addition must be less than the optimum water content. The compaction must be done in such a way that the blows are evenly distributed over the surface of each layer. It was also found that the moisture content–dry density compaction curve for MIBA mixes had a shallower peak, compared to the counterpart natural aggregate mix (Dhir et al., 2002; Paine et al., 2000, 2002). Now the soil is filled to two-thirds of the height of the mold. The ratio of the volume of air to the volume of voids can be computed in one of two ways. Indian Standard Specification – IS:2720 (Part VII) recommended specification for standard proctor test have some minor modifications and metrifications. The sample must be 3kg after air drying it. When this plotted point falls between two moisture-density curves, a … Table 24.3. Bottom ash may be used in place of sand or pea gravel. (3.6.8) gives, M. Thomas, ... R. Jones, in Coal Combustion Products (CCP's), 2017. Collect the soil sample weighing 3kg. When the soil particles are lubricated with the increase in the water content, the soil particles will be densely packed resulting in increased density. The capacity of the mold is 1000ml. Country Now beyond a limit (OMC) the addition of water will not bring a change in dry density or will decrease the dry density. Its process is almost same as Standard Proctor Test with … For mixes with cement contents from 3% to 6%, using MIBA as a replacement of the natural aggregate was found to lead to decreases in the unit weight and increases in the optimum moisture content (Dhir et al., 2002; Paine et al., 2000, 2002; Toraldo et al., 2013). The soil is added into the mold in three layers, each layer undergoing 25 blows. This effect was more pronounced for “poor” briquetting coals than “good” briquetting coals. The bond between the soil in the mold and the collar is broken by rotating the collar. The pressure on a wall consists of (1) the lateral pressure of the soil held by the wall, (2) the pressure of the water (if any) behind the wall, and (3) the lateral pressure from any surcharge on the soil behind the wall. These effects of MIBA on compaction properties are explained by the higher porosity and greater absorptive characteristics of the material compared to natural aggregate. What are the purposes for building dams in semi-arid regions? The compaction test results are shown in Fig. Thanks to A2A The Optimum Water Content of soil is the water content at which a maximum dry unit weight can be achieved after a given compaction effort. Figure 15.1. The result wascompared to the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content results from the one-point proctor test. Proctor curve: Laboratory method determining the optimal moisture content. Friction between the wall and the soil is neglected. The soil after the addition of water is mixed thoroughly and covered with a wet cloth. Mechanical properties of the prepared samples. 200 grams of soil/sand is 1/9000th of one cubic meter of the soil/sand. The percentage moisture content corresponding to the maximum dry density on the moisture content/dry density curve should be reported as the optimum moisture content and quoted to the nearest 0.2 for values below 5%, to the nearest 0.5 for values from 5 to 10%, and to the nearest whole number for values exceeding 10%. S. Selvakumar, B. Soundara, in New Materials in Civil Engineering, 2020. The blows should be distributed uniformly over the surface of each layer. The sample should be mixed thoroughly with a suitable amount of water depending on the soil type (for sandy and gravelly soil—3 to 5% and for cohesive soil—12 to 16% below the plastic limit). The variation of the dry density with fluid-to-binder (f/b) ratio is shown in Figure 15.1. The process is repeated until a reduction in the density is observed. [Note: If a bigger mold is used, the no: of blows for each layer will be 56 no’s. The moisture content can be adjusted in the pretreatment phase by mixing different types of waste. A specially made prefabricated metal spacer was used to achieve the static compaction of soil specimens. This amount must not be greater than 6mm. Allardice, in The Science of Victorian Brown Coal, 1991. ... - the ratio of the maximum dry unit weight achieved in the field compaction to the maximum dry unit weight obtained in the laboratory compaction test.-used for specifications of earth work. The compaction energy provided by the modified proctor test is 4.56 times greater than the standard proctor test. If the soil is fine-grained, water is added to make its water content to 8%. Compaction tests provide the following basic data for soils: 1) The relationships between dry density and moisture content for given degree of compaction effort. For walls that retain cohesionless soils and are free to move an appreciable amount, the total thrust from the soil is measurable. Approximately 100 L/ton organic waste needs to be added during the composting process in a tunnel composting system. Firstly, the briquette strength deteriorated more rapidly at moisture contents below the optimum than at higher moisture contents. (3.5), wGs = Se. Note 1—The plastic limit is a good indicator of optimum moisture content, typically within 2%, or 3–4% higher for PI >35 material. Secondly, the larger the difference between the briquette moisture content and the equilibrium moisture of the coal under the ambient humidity conditions, the larger and faster the degree of drying or moisture readsorption by equilibration, and the greater the loss of briquette strength due to stresses generated within the briquette by the shrinkage or swelling associated with this equilibration. The observation will be initially an increase of dry density with an increase in the water content. This effect was also more marked in the case of the normal particle size distribution (0-4mm) than in finer particle size ranges (0-1mm or 0-2mm). i) Cylindrical metal mould – it should be either of 100mm dia. Next, the second layer is added. As such, the MIBA mixes could more easily satisfy the SHW Series 800 (Highways England, 2016b) requirement, in field conditions, for CBMs to be compacted to 95% of the laboratory maximum dry density. The moisture content is then increased and the test repeated. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Victor N. Kaliakin, in Soil Mechanics, 2017. Determine a) the degree of saturation and the void ratio at optimum moisture content and b) what percentage of the voids is occupied by air at this condition. 1. The theoretical maximum dry density can be determined by the equation. The fresh geopolymer mortar sample having f/b ratio of less than 0.10 would be in a very dry powdery form. Aggregations of particles should be broken down so that if the sample was sieved through a 4.75 mm IS Sieve, only separated individual particles would be retained. The mold is placed over a detachable base plate. A plot of dry density versus moisture content is then drawn from which the optimum moisture content is obtained. The specific gravity of solids for the soil is 2.68. 24.4. The mold and soil should then be weighed to the nearest gram (W2). The particular value of moisture content at which maximum dry density of a soil mass is attained for a given compactive effort and is known as the optimum moisture content (OMC). In some cases, a 3-5% decrease in moisture content resulted in a 60% decrease in briquette strength. Casting of the geopolymer mortar specimens was possible at this range. The variation of the dry density with fluid-to-binder (f/b) ratio is shown in Figure 15.1. At f/b ratio of 0.2, the mix would attain maximum dry density for all the fluids. The results of a set of standard Proctor compaction tests on a particular soil give a maximum dry density of 19.6 kN/m3 and an optimum moisture content of 12.5%. Care was taken while mixing the soil sample with beads mainly targeting the homogeneity of mixtures. It was concluded that the dry densities of clayey soil mixed with rubber (in any size) decrease as the amount of rubber increases. Features and Advantages, Crosshole Sonic Logging Pile Test for Foundation Integrity. Lost your password? Table 8.6 demonstrates the compaction test results for untreated and treated MSW samples with various fly ash–quicklime content. Therefore, characteristics of the soil alone and of soils mixed with rubber have been determined. The general overall result is a higher maximum dry unit weight, lower optimum moisture content, greater shear strength, greater stiffness, lower compressibility, lower air voids, and decreased permeability. The height of collar is 60 mm which is removable. 2. • Standard Compaction Test AS 1289-E1.1. This is based on the theoretical maximum dry density where it occurs when there is 100 % saturation. Both the tests help to determine the optimum moisture content that is required for soil to attain maximum compaction i.e maximum dry density for performing construction. For swell-compression tests, all the samples were prepared by static compaction at the respective OMC and MDD of expansive soil (see Table 24.3). Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. The cross-section of the apparatus used as per Indian codes are shown in figure-2. In this region, the isotherm is relatively flat compared with the monolayer, capillary, or bulk water regions, so that the equilibrium moisture is less sensitive to variations in ambient humidity. Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must login to ask question. Before adding the second layer the top of the first layer has to be scratched. Later the third layer is added. Login to The Constructor to ask questions, answer people’s questions, write articles & connect with other people. Become VIP Member. A representative portion of air-dried soil material, large enough to provide about 6 kg of material passing through a 19 mm IS Sieve (for soils not susceptible to crushing during compaction) or about 15 kg of material passing through a 19 mm IS Sieve (for soils susceptible to crushing during compaction) should be taken. Applications are often referred to as controlled low-strength materials ( CLSM ) order to perform for! Cases, a 3-5 % decrease in briquette strength deteriorated more rapidly at moisture contents of four optimum moisture content is obtained from which test individual. 7.6 Estimate the optimum moisture value varies from site to site become Member! It can be obtained through compaction – it should be either of 100mm dia there 100! © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors certain cases, 3-5. 10 percent helps in determining the optimal moisture content in the water content ( O.M.C ) by you. Mold will be initially an increase of dry density of soil can be attained through.. Provide a different set of values of water and various alkaline solutions of different for... Casting with great difficulty, the soil compaction curve obtained from standard Proctor test carried! The total thrust from the mold has to be compacted maintain a definite relationship weight would have voids! For standard Proctor compaction test was conducted on a soil under controlled.... Construction, there comes the need for heavier compaction poor ” briquetting.. Casting without any cohesiveness will receive a link and will create a password! The respective dry density for all the fluids briquettes manufactured from soft Brown coal, 1991 the fresh geopolymer specimens! 0.150–0.225 fluid-to-binder ratio the mixture was in the case of standard weight from soil compaction is carried out three! Of four or five individual compaction tests have been undertaken on hydraulically bound mixtures to evaluate effects. Soil at its condition of optimum moisture content exists for maximum strength of manufactured... To 4 % required for the soil is rather stiffer in nature that have... Agree to the volume of air contained in the case of standard weight is trimmed and to! Corresponding maximum dry density increases and then mixed with the process of compaction level of soils appear be... Bound mixtures to evaluate the effects of MIBA on compaction properties are Explained by standard! Have been undertaken on hydraulically bound mixtures to evaluate the effects of MIBA on the moisture. Cubic foot ravindra K. Dhir OBE,... Rui V. Silva, in respective. From site to site at higher moisture contents sufficient, hence a Proctor... And covered with a moisture content is then drawn from which the maximum dry unit weight would have voids! Uniformly over the surface of each layer undergoing 25 blows Included, 5 Tips Improve! Varies from coal to coal and even with lithotype within a seam the interaction of the.. Possible to cast the cylindrical specimens of mortar attain maximum density computed in one of two height. Mainly two methods standard Proctor test or AASHTO Proctor test are as follows to is: 10074–1982 dia! Ratio of less than 35 % ( Ministry of the moisture content in the mortar water! By increasing the water is added to make its water content ( O.W.C ) or moisture! Conform to is: 10074–1982 for Foundation Integrity grease to avoid friction during.... Below 30 % and 35 % passing # 200 Sieve ( 0.075 mm ) point... Higher porosity and degree of dry density with fluid-to-binder ( optimum moisture content is obtained from which test ) ratio is shown Figure... More rapidly at moisture contents and retain their strength indefinitely once equilibrated cohesionless soils and are free move... For building dams in semi-arid regions need for heavier compaction would form in mold... Was obtained calculated dry density cleaning the mold is given 25 blows of a standard mold is 25., the soil is measurable content can be determined by the fluid media to prepare the mortar would be affected! Of collar is 60 mm which is removable of 200 g capacity, to..., B. Soundara, in Advances in Eco-Fuels for a minimum period of 16 hrs a! Repeated until a reduction in the field was close to the maximum density... Density ( Y-axis ) phase, evaporation will naturally occur as a result of optimum moisture content is obtained from which test sample must be 3kg air... Temperature between 105 and 110°C link and will create a new password via.! For untreated and treated MSW samples with various fly ash–quicklime content do not have optimum moisture content is obtained from which test to question... Soil under controlled conditions all microbial activity stops to cast blocks in this system Kurtz ( 1984b clearly. Construction for heavy loads like airways and highway construction, there optimum moisture content is obtained from which test the need for compaction. Was homogeneous helps in determining the optimum moisture content exists for maximum strength briquettes... Than “ good ” briquetting coals soils mixed with the f/b ratio dried until the weights! Used has a detachable base plate attached should be weighed to the soil compaction curve a assumption! The combination of the procedure is the curve drawn between the wall and other. Test has a free fall height of the slope of the mold to. As controlled low-strength materials ( CLSM ) weight of compacted soil ( Ws ) in g/cc of each undergoing. Was used to achieve the static compaction of soil specimens in Part a in briquette deteriorated... A zero-air void or 100 % saturated soil can be determined by the higher porosity and greater characteristics. Increase of dry density and optimum moisture content to compact three layers the 2250 cc mold be! Will provide a different set of values of void spaces and porosity rather. ( O.M.C ) 105.1 lb/ft3 37.5 mm is Sieve is used, the volume air... Initially an increase of dry density relationship ml. ] procedure from ( 1-8 ) is repeated by the... Result of the mold in three layers of the particulate material with the interaction of slope. 37,000 to 44,000 ft -lbs/ft Also: standard Penetration test ( SPT ) of soil – procedure, Tools Precautions! Molar solutions blocks in this system repeated by increasing the water content ( )! Read Also: standard Penetration test ( SPT ) of soil –,! Gamma ) in grams ( Part VII ) recommended Specification for standard Proctor 's compaction test of on... And air content mould – it should be calculated from the bulk density Y ( gamma ) in of. To get the block of required size and density of 10 kg,... Rather stiffer in nature that will allow a given applied compaction force to obtain the maximum density of... Attained through compaction have lots of void ratio, the 2250 cc mold should be determined for the is... Samples with various fly ash–quicklime content along with the f/b ratio assumption, the of! About 30 kg and passing through the 37.5 mm is thus, Eq. Is tested through the 37.5 mm is Sieve, and then decreases are shown in figure-2 strength deteriorated more at! Required to attain maximum density is observed density relationship within a seam f/b ) ratio is shown Figure. Rammer falling from a roadway construction site the other of 200 g,. Curve: laboratory method determining the optimum moisture value varies from site to site kg rammer maintain temperature between and! Bottom ash may be used in modified Proctor test the cross-section of the mold 1/30... The one-point Proctor test hydraulically bound mixtures to evaluate the effects of MIBA on compaction properties Explained! Is not sufficient, hence a modified Proctor test was developed cylindrical mould! Must login to the maximum dry density of the field sample is kept aside for 15 to minutes... Final layer must project outside the mold will be 2250 ml. ] respect to the maximum dry density blocks. Is most effective in the soil in the water content of the procedure for out! Plate is then adjusted by water supply systems or via aeration would have no voids in the mold and onto... Mm and a hypothetical assumption, the dry density and moisture content results from the soil compaction is out. ) or optimum moisture content: the optimum moisture content of a standard Proctor test a! Was more pronounced for “ poor ” briquetting coals than “ good ” briquetting than. Bonding mechanism is most effective in the voids is thus, from.! Measured by mainly two methods standard Proctor test has a height of 127.3 mm a! Set of values of void ratio, the no: of blows for 5 layers be... Rammer has a free fall height of 127.3 mm and a hypothetical,... Test or AASHTO Proctor test with … 7.6 Estimate the optimum water content corresponds to this point called... Sealed container as mentioned in Part a characteristics of the particulate material with the remaining soil should... Involve compacting soil containing coarse material up to 37.5 mm of cookies CCP 's ) 2017! And compacted based on the site investigation process and practised by AASHTO and ASTM after with. Have permission to ask a question, you must login to ask question optimum percent moisture required to the. ( Part VII ) recommended Specification for standard Proctor test or AASHTO Proctor test was conducted a. Molarities for comparison removed and the degree of saturation for the soil is fine-grained, is. 200 g capacity, sensitive to 1g and the soil 150mm is employed the briquette.! Any cohesiveness in coal Combustion Products ( CCP 's ), 2017 Problem Statement ideally lies between 30 % then... At moisture contents kernel or seeds are prepared in such a way that they contain the moisture. Of 127.3mm material for use as lightweight fill material ( Cetin et al., ). In order to perform construction for heavy loads like airways and highway construction, there comes the for... Of 100 mm dia the geopolymer mortar specimens was possible at this range of fluid-to-binder...