Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. his precession, the crowd stopped cheering and fell silent when they saw his stature. Gilgamesh, like Qin Shi Huang and Pope Innocent VIII and many others across time, demonstrates his commitment to his quest for physical immortality through his willingness to risk his life for a chance to live forever. The papal bull of Pope Innocent VIII known as Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484). In 1494, he squandered his father's patrimony and brought down the Medici dynasty in Florence. does not yet exist, I will quote Pope John Paul II’s own interpretation of this passage. [14], Lorenzo was described as rather plain of appearance and of average height, having a broad frame and short legs, dark hair and eyes, a squashed nose, short-sighted eyes and a harsh voice. Continue Reading. Immortality In King Gilgamesh 748 Words | 3 Pages. Lorenzo de' Medici appears as a supporting character to the protagonist. In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici , who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X . During Lorenzo's tenure, several branches of the family bank collapsed because of bad loans, and in later years he got into financial difficulties and resorted to misappropriating trust and state funds. Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, "Medici, Lorenzo de', detto il Magnifico", "Medici Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth-Century Florence", "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope Clement VII", "Alessandro de' Medici (1510–1537) • BlackPast", "Revisiting the renaissance with Assassin's Creed 2", "Who's who in 'Da Vinci's Demons' Season 2", "Daniel Sharman and Bradley James Join Netflix's 'Medici, "The Mouse that Michelangelo Did Carve in the Medici Chapel: An Oriental Comment to the Famous Article of Erwin Panofsky", Genealogical tables of the House of Medici, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lorenzo_de%27_Medici&oldid=998458000, 15th-century people of the Republic of Florence, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Contessina Beatrice de' Medici, died shortly after her birth on 23 September 1474. [23] When these moves had little effect, Sixtus formed a military alliance with King Ferdinand I of Naples, whose son, Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, led an invasion of the Florentine Republic, still ruled by Lorenzo. [17], Lorenzo, like his grandfather, father, and son, ruled Florence indirectly through surrogates in the city councils by means of payoffs and strategic marriages. Prelude [edit | edit source]. Clarice and Lorenzo had 10 children, all except Contessina Antonia born in Florence: Lorenzo adopted his nephew Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici (1478–1534), the illegitimate son of his slain brother Giuliano. 1477 (25th December) “Behold, t is the Lord God that is leading all these armies”. Pope Innocent VIII was born in 1432 and passed his youth at the Neapolitan court. Piero accepted the uselessness o his position, and following his fathers example, he, went to Charles’ camp. [10] Niccolò Machiavelli also wrote of the occasion, perhaps sarcastically, that he won "not by way of favour, but by his own valour and skill in arms". Lorenzo's mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni, was a writer of sonnets and a friend to poets and philosophers of the Medici Academy. Lorenzo's ally turned adversary friar tries to bring the truth to Florentine people, a dark fact that will most likely destroy the support Lorenzo always had in his friends and his own wife Clarice, leading to an unforeseen tragedy. The Medici may be credited with, among other feats, financing and fostering the great flourishing of the arts, humanities, an… An example includes the commission of Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, Pietro Perugino and Cosimo Rosselli from Rome to paint murals in the Sistine Chapel, a move that has been interpreted as sealing the alliance between Lorenzo and Pope Sixtus IV.[30]. November 1523 bis zu seinem Tode Papst. After a licentious youth, during which he had two illegitimate children, Franceschetto and Teodorina, he took orders and entered the service of Cardinal Calandrini. insisted on entering Florence with his intimidating army. [40], Lorenzo's heir was his eldest son, Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici, known as "Piero the Unfortunate". But Alexander VI was a Borgia before he was a pope, so his turn in the cassock was always going to be debauched. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave.. Death. Pre-Ecclesiastic Period. The same year, 1493. Using his influence to provide for […] He wrote, "I do not regret this for though many would consider it better to have a part of that sum in their purse, I consider it to have been a great honour to our state, and I think the money was well-expended and I am well-pleased."[31]. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull known as Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer’s investigations against magicians and witches: “It has recently come to our ears, not without great pain to us, that in some parts of upper Germany, […] "[16], Lorenzo, groomed for power, assumed a leading role in the state upon the death of his father in 1469, when he was 20. He hastily departed from Rome to beg the protection of his wife’s family, the powerful de’ Medici clan who ruled Florence. After Riaro was murdered in 1488 by supporters of the new pope, Innocent VIII, she acted as regent for her oldest son Ottaviano, who was not yet of age. [7] She became her son's advisor after the deaths of his father and uncle. [39], Lorenzo was buried with his brother Giuliano in the Church of San Lorenzo in the red porphyry sarcophagus designed for Piero and Giovanni de' Medici, not, as might be expected, in the New Sacristy, designed by Michelangelo. [40] According to Williamson and others, the statues of the lesser Lorenzo and Giuliano were carved by Michelangelo to incorporate the essence of the famous men. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. Cosimo had started the collection of books that became the Medici Library (also called the Laurentian Library), and Lorenzo expanded it. that his son Giovanni (afterwards Leo X., b. Learn more about Politics and The Prince with Course Hero's Lorenzo's court included artists such as Piero and Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Andrea del Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Michelangelo Buonarroti, who were instrumental in achieving the 15th-century Renaissance. He was the couple’s fourth surviving child, Lucrezia had been born in 1470, Piero in 1472 and Maddelena in 1473. [11] He carried a banner painted by Verrocchio, and his horse was named Morello di Vento. Even so, Pope Innocent VIII’s influence assured that his wastrel son received heavy-duty titles such as governor of Rome and Count of the Lateran Palace. That night, Piero fled the city. Obtained from Pope Innocent VIII. His complexion was dark, and although his face was not handsome it was so full of dignity as to compel respect. Pope Leo X was born Giovanni de Medici to Lorenzo the Magnificant and Clarice Orsini in Florence. Innocent VIII Was the First Pope to Acknowledge His Illegitimate Children Openly Cardinal Giovanni Cibo lived a worldly life before the curia elected him Innocent VIII in 1484. Already drained by his grandfather's building projects and constantly stressed by mismanagement, wars, and political expenses, the assets of the Medici Bank reduced seriously during the course of Lorenzo's lifetime. In 1559, the bodies of Lorenzo de' Medici ("the Magnificent") and his brother Giuliano were interred in the New Sacristy in an unmarked tomb beneath Michelangelo's statue of the Madonna. [22] News of the conspiracy spread throughout Florence, and it was brutally put down by the populace through such measures as the lynching of the archbishop of Pisa and members of the Pazzi family who were involved in the conspiracy. In 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued the Papal. Pope Innocent VIII (Giovanni Battista Cibò) Born at Genoa, 1432; elected 29 August, 1484; died at Rome, 25 July, 1492. It may be a mistake with whomever ordering / making the tomb not being aware of actual timeline, or a deliberate desire to connect him to contemporaneous major events. Renaissance Papacy has such a horrid reputation for corruption. September 1534 in Rom) aus der Familie der Medici war vom 18. Italy. Meanwhile he received an education at Lorenzo's humanistic court under such men as Angelo Poliziano, Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino and Bernardo Dovizio Bibbiena. In season, he hunted at Castello della … VIII entered the city of Florence, surrounded by an unimagineably large and scary, However, when Charles VIII dismounted from his massive black war horse at the end of. The Medici is a series about the well-known Florentine family with the same name during the early Renaissance period. for money to help defend the city, it was met with pessimistic response from the people. Charles VIII neverthelss. Lorenzo sent mercenaries to suppress the revolt by force, and the mercenaries ultimately sacked the city. (bürgerlich Giulio de Medici; * 26. Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Groomed for greatness, Lorenzo the Magnificent was one of the more influential members of the Medici (when you say “the Medici,” you’re referring to the family as a whole so saying “the Medici family” is redundant), arguably the most powerful family of the Italian Renaissance. He is buried in the Medici Chapel in Florence. A bounty of 4,000, Florence sent out a delegation of four to undo what pieor had sneakily done behind the, city’s back. [6] Lorenzo's father, Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, was equally at the centre of Florentine civic life, chiefly as an art patron and collector, while Lorenzo's uncle, Giovanni di Cosimo de' Medici, took care of the family's business interests. Innocent VIII, given name Giovanni Battista Cibo, Roman Catholic Pope from the 29th of August 1484 to the 25th of July 1492, successor of Pope Sixtus IV, was born at Genoa (1432), the son of Arano Cibo, who under Calixtus III had been a senator of Rome. When Innocent VIII died in 1492, so did the despised Cybo’s protection. [37] Many signs and portents were claimed to have taken place at the moment of his death, including the dome of Florence Cathedral being struck by lightning, ghosts appearing, and the lions kept at Via Leone fighting one another.[38]. Lorenzo was an artist and wrote poetry in his native Tuscan. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. He built a palace for his mistress, and openly enjoyed her charms. [6], Lorenzo, considered the most promising of the five children of Piero and Lucrezia, was tutored by a diplomat and bishop, Gentile de' Becchi, and the humanist philosopher Marsilio Ficino,[8] and he was trained in Greek by John Argyropoulos. The joust was the subject of a poem written by Luigi Pulci. 13. In a fairly unimpressive papacy, the elderly pope became the first pontiff to publicly announce that he fathered illegitimate children. On 23 March 1492, he … 1474 wurde Santa Cecilia in Trastevere seine Titelkirche. [36] Savonarola visited Lorenzo on his deathbed. He was the son of the Roman senator, Aran Cibò, and Teodorina de' Mari. Pope Innocent VIII. [18] The most notable of the rival families was the Pazzi, who nearly brought Lorenzo's reign to an end. [26] When they realized the value of the alum mine, the people of Volterra wanted its revenues for their municipal funds rather than having it enter the pockets of their Florentine backers. Letters written by witnesses to Lorenzo's death report that he died peacefully after listening to the Gospel of the day. -The death of Pope Innocent VIII and Lorenzo de Medici mean that the balance of power was being thrown out of whack in Italy. Savonarola – one of the delegates – begged for mercy from Charles, and saw, him as the saviour of the faith that he had called for in the city. The second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489.. His second son, Giovanni, who became Pope Leo X, retook the city in 1512 with the aid of a Spanish army. Charles met his with disdain, and Piero agreed to all of the terms, laid out by Charles. Bayezid II. Rome. From 1489 to 1491 he studied theology and canon law at Pisa. [21] Shockingly, Salviati acted with the blessing of his patron Pope Sixtus IV. 100% (1/1) Beyazid II Bayazid II Beyazıt II. With Daniel Sharman, Francesco Montanari, Alessandra Mastronardi, Johnny Harris. When his brother Piero de’ Medici (1471–1503) was expelled from Florence in 1494, Giovanni also went into exile, which he spent mainly in Città di Castello, Perugia, Urbino and Milan; in 1499 he travelled to Germany, the Netherlands and France. Er wurde am 7. . 1467 wurde er Bischof von Savona und 1472 Bischof von Molfetta. This was the beginning of what is called, “The Calamity of Italy”, An army of 30,000 soldiers marched across the Alps, facing no opposition through, Florence. This preview shows page 2 - 4 out of 6 pages. The Medici ruled Florence, and later all of Tuscany as well as Rome (the latter mostly from behind the scenes). [18][19] Rival Florentine families inevitably harboured resentments over the Medicis' dominance, and enemies of the Medici remained a factor in Florentine life long after Lorenzo's passing. Pope Innocent VIII : biography 1432 – 25 July 1492 In Rome he built for summer use the Belvedere of the Vatican, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace, which his successor would turn into the Cortile del Belvedere. [12][13], Piero sent Lorenzo on many important diplomatic missions when he was still a youth, including trips to Rome to meet the pope and other important religious and political figures. Nepotism described as "lavish as it was shameless." Apart from a personal interest, Lorenzo also used the Florentine milieu of fine arts for his diplomatic efforts. Pope Innocent VIII, in conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples over Ferdinand's refusal to pay feudal dues to the papacy, excommunicated and deposed Ferdinand by a bull of 11 September 1489. Thus began an insurrection and secession from Florence, which involved putting to death several opposing citizens. For these reasons, Lorenzo was the subject of the Pazzi conspiracy (1478), in which his brother Giuliano was assassinated. Piero de Medici, declared that Florence would remain neutral in the affair, but, the French needed, fortresses in Florence to defend its rear-flank. Mai 1478 in Florenz; 25. Innocent VIII August 29, 1484 - July 25, 1492 . The third season takes place a few months after the Pazzi conspiracy in 1478, lasting until the 1480s or early 1490s. In 1471, Lorenzo calculated that his family had spent some 663,000 florins (about US$460 million today) on charity, buildings and taxes since 1434. zum Kardinal mit der Titelkirche Santa Balbina allAventino erhoben. When his brother Piero de’ Medici (1471–1503) was expelled from Florence in 1494, Giovanni also went into exile, which he spent mainly in Città di Castello, Perugia, Urbino and Milan; in 1499 he travelled to Germany, the Netherlands and France. The tympanum has the coat of arms of Pope Innocent VIII (center) and of the cardinals Giovanni and Ferdinando de Medici. It s mainly because OF Alexander VI that the. In 1523, after serving four years as ruler of Florence, Giulio ascended to the papacy as Pope Clement VII.[34]. Clemens VII. The aim was to use the gold of the New World to fund Crusades and to gain souls for Christianity. The latter holds the two monumental tombs of Lorenzo and Giuliano's less known namesakes: Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, and Giuliano, Duke of Nemours. During what is known as the Little Ice Age , the grip of freezing weather, failing of crops, rising crime, and mass starvation resulted in an increasing fear of witches. [15] Even Lorenzo's close friend Niccolo Valori described him as homely, saying, "nature had been a stepmother to him in regards to his personal appearance, although she had acted as a loving mother in all things concocted with the mind. Contessina (1478–1515) married Piero Ridolfi. The death of Pope Innocent VIII and Lorenzo de Medici mean that the balance of. With Daniel Sharman, Francesco Montanari, Alessandra Mastronardi, Johnny Harris. The death of Pope Innocent VIII and Lorenzo de Medici mean that the balance of power, Pope Alexander VI (1492 – 1503) Rodrigo Brogia, Rodrigo Borgia had held the same position under five differnet popes, and as such, had, become immensely wealty. Lorenzo maintained good relations with Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire, as the Florentine maritime trade with the Ottomans was a major source of wealth for the Medici. The season looks at how Lorenzo the Magnificent shaped the Medici family and the city of Florence during a time of city-state feuds and war that drew in the … [citation needed] The marriage in person took place in Florence on 4 June 1469. Lorenzo de' Medici (Italian pronunciation: [loˈrɛntso de ˈmɛːditʃi], 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492)[1] was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy. PRE-PAPAL BACKGROUND . When King Ferrante of Naples died in 1494, Charles VIII announced his claim to the, Republic. However, with little support from the traditional Medici allies in Bologna and Milan,[20] the war dragged on, and only diplomacy by Lorenzo, who personally traveled to Naples and became a prisoner of the king for several months, ultimately resolved the crisis. A key commodity in the glassmaking, tanning and textile industries, alum was available from only a few sources under the control of the Ottomans and monopolized by Genoa before the discovery of alum sources in Italy at Tolfa. Eventually, the Knights handed Cem over to Pope Innocent VIII (1484–1492). In his poetry, he celebrates life while acknowledging with melancholy the fragility and instability of the human condition, particularly in his later works. He held the balance of power within the Italic League, an alliance of states that stabilized political conditions on the Italian peninsula for decades, and his life coincided with the mature phase of the Italian Renaissance and the Golden Age of Florence. [25], Efforts to acquire revenue from the mining of alum in Tuscany unfortunately marred Lorenzo's reputation. I endeavoured to find out where the story originated. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. [9] With his brother Giuliano, he participated in jousting, hawking, hunting, and horse breeding for the Palio, a horse race in Siena. Innocent VIII Was the First Pope to Acknowledge His Illegitimate Children Openly. Lorenzo hurried to Volterra to make amends, but the incident would remain a dark stain on his record.[27][28]. She was a daughter of Giacomo Orsini, Lord of Monterotondo and Bracciano by his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. As one of the wealthiest men in Europe, Cosimo spent a very large portion of his fortune on government and philanthropy, for example as a patron of the arts and financier of public works. [2][3][4] Also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (Lorenzo il Magnifico [loˈrɛntso il maɲˈɲiːfiko]) by contemporary Florentines, he was a magnate, diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists, and poets. This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 13:32. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. The Peace of Lodi of 1454 that he helped maintain among the various Italian states collapsed with his death. Lorenzo played a role in bringing Savonarola to Florence. Pope Innocent VIII (1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Giovanni (1475–1521) became Pope Leo X. Luisa (or Luigia; 1477–1488), was betrothed to Giovanni il Popolano, but died young. Contessina Antonia Romola de' Medici (1478–1515), Lorenzo de' Medici is depicted as a teenager in. Some days previously, as the story goes, a Jewish physician had infused the blood of three ten-year-old boys, who all died soon afterwards as a result of this. Charles and his army camped on the border of Tuscany. Toward the end of Lorenzo's life, Florence came under the influence of Savonarola, who believed Christians had strayed too far into Greco-Roman culture. Alum had been discovered by local citizens of Volterra, who turned to Florence to get backing to exploit this important natural resource. The Medici can’t demand the payment without risking papal fury. Assumed chief political power at age of twenty-one, upon the occasion of the death of his father, Piero, and ruled until his death in 1492. The accepted version is that Columbus was dispatched in 1492 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, but Signor Marino said that the venture was originally financed by Innocent VIII and the Medici banking dynasty to which the Pope was related. Janet Ross. Innocent then offered the Kingdom of Naples to King Charles VIII of France, who had a remote claim to Naples through the Angevin line. 14 August 2016. Giuliano was killed, brutally stabbed to death, but Lorenzo escaped with only a minor wound to the neck, having been defended by the poet Poliziano. Innocent VIII (1484–1492) Not married Yes (two) Both born before he entered the clergy. Lorenzo's grandfather, Cosimo de' Medici, was the first member of the Medici family to lead the Republic of Florence and run the Medici Bank simultaneously. [20], On Sunday, 26 April 1478, in an incident known as the Pazzi conspiracy, a group headed by Girolamo Riario, Francesco de' Pazzi, and Francesco Salviati (the archbishop of Pisa), attacked Lorenzo and his brother and co-ruler Giuliano in the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in an attempt to seize control of the Florentine government. Find answers and explanations to over 1.2 million textbook exercises. In 1492 he was made a cardinal by Pope Innocent VIII. Innocent VIII is not so innocent. That success enabled Lorenzo to secure constitutional changes within the government of the Florentine Republic that further enhanced his own power. When the Pope was absent from Rome, Lucrezia acted as his fill-in. Page 250. a Spaniard Pope. When Piero de Medici asked. Married elder son Franceschetto Cybo to the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his 13-year-old son Giovanni, who became Pope Leo X. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. 1475-d. 1521) was made Cardinal at the age of fourteen. But, in 1492, he is elected Pope Alexander VI. [41] In 1531, Lorenzo's nephew Giulio di Giuliano – whom Lorenzo had raised as his own son, and later became Pope Clement VII – formalized Medici rule of Florence by installing Alessandro de' Medici the city's first hereditary duke. The Pope died on 25 July 1492. Lorenzo's ally turned adversary friar tries to bring the truth to Florentine people, a dark fact that will most likely destroy the support Lorenzo always had in his friends and his own wife Clarice, leading to an unforeseen tragedy. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave. appetite, and was particularly interested in children. The protracted conflict with Naples was the principal obstacle to a crusade against the Turks; Innocent VIII earnestly endeavoured to unite Christendom against the common enemy. FREE study guides and infographics! Lorenzo married an Orsini, of the high Roman nobility.His daughter Maddalena was married to a son of Pope Innocent VIII (born before his father’s entry into religious orders), and his eldest son, Piero, married another Orsini. [24], Lorenzo rallied the citizens. First the Roman Curia in 1462, and then Lorenzo and the Medici Bank less than a year later, got involved in backing the mining operation, with the pope taking a two-ducat commission for each cantar quintal of alum retrieved and ensuring a monopoly against the Turkish-derived goods by prohibiting trade in alum with infidels. Continue Reading. [35], Lorenzo died during the late night of 8 April 1492, at the longtime family villa of Careggi. Innocent VIII, original name Giovanni Battista Cibo, (born 1432, Genoa—died July 25/26, 1492, Rome), pope from 1484 to 1492. In 1484, Pope Innocent VIII announced that these meetings had been taking place and. Witnessing the right opportunity to seize power for to survive, Lorenzo and Clarice embark on the journey where they would discover the darkest aspects of the pious papacy, when Lorenzo eventually obtains for what he has thrived so far. Michelangelo lived with Lorenzo and his family for three years, dining at the family table and participating in discussions led by Marsilio Ficino. Mai 1473 von Papst Sixtus IV. Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. André Chastel, Art et Humanisme à Florence au temps de Laurent le Magnifique (Paris, 1959). in Rome, and two of her weddings were held inside the Vatican. Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless" In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. Giovanni’s father was head of the Medici bank and Lord of Florence. She was much-loved. Lorenzo married Clarice Orsini by proxy on 7 February 1469. Pope Boniface IX Pope Innocent VIII Albergo (family) House of Altoviti House of Medici. As a cardinal, he was known for his veracious sexual. The rumour that Savonarola damned Lorenzo on his deathbed has been refuted in Roberto Ridolfi's book Vita di Girolamo Savonarola. Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici (1472–1503), called "the Unfortunate", was ruler of Florence after his father's death Maria Maddalena Romola de' Medici (1473–1528) married Franceschetto Cybo (illegitimate son of Pope Innocent VIII) on 25 February 1487 and had seven children [42], Italian statesman and de facto dictator of the Florentine Republic, Paintings by Botticelli that use the Medici family as models. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family of Florence, Giovanni was the second son of Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of the Florentine Republic, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Alrady aware of the terms of the treaty, the government of Florence, The Vacca – the emergency bell on the top of ______ - tolled, and a large crowd, assembled around Piero to stone him. Try our expert-verified textbook solutions with step-by-step explanations. [20], In the aftermath of the Pazzi conspiracy and the punishment of supporters of Pope Sixtus IV, the Medici and Florence earned the wrath of the Holy See, which seized all the Medici assets that Sixtus could find, excommunicated Lorenzo and the entire government of Florence, and ultimately put the entire Florentine city-state under interdict. Following the death of Pope Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Basilica of Santa Maria in Domnica. 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